Definitions about Private Aviation -Glossary and Terms

What is ACJ?

What are air ambulances used for?

An air ambulance is an aircraft which is specially equipped for medical purposes, used to transport people suffering from sickness or injury to hospital in the case of an emergency. A doctor, as part of the crew, will be taking care of the patient during the trip. See also MedEvac.

What is air charter operator?

An air charter operator is authorised to operate air charter flights, due to having been granted an Air Operator Certificate (AOC). This is the party in charge of the maintenance, licensing, safety and operations of private aircraft, be it a single business jet or a fleet. The operator is not necessarily the owner of the private aircraft that is available for charter.

What is an air charter service?

An air charter service is a service offered by an air charter broker like LunaJets, to search for the best private jet in the market, organise all the pre-flight procedures for the passengers, follow the private jet during the flight, and ensure all went well afterwards. For this air charter service, the broker will charge a small air charter service commission, which is usually offset by the discounted prices they offer for the flight, compared to prices obtained directly from operators.

What does the Air Operator Certificate (AOC) specify?

An Air Operator's Certificate is the official authorisation of an aircraft operator by a national aviation authority (NAA) to permit it to use aircraft for commercial purposes. Requirements vary depending on the country but generally include aircraft airworthiness, adequate personnel and operating systems and proof of sufficient finances, amongst other things. LunaJet's only uses the most reliable operators with the highest level of certification for its clients.

What is Air Traffic Control (ATC)?

Air traffic control is a service which manages the flow of air traffic through specially trained ground-based air traffic controllers. Each country generally provides this service to all private, military and commercial aircraft operating within its airspace and the primary role of ATC is to ensure the safe and fluid circulation of aircraft.

What is an avionics system?

The term 'avionics' refers to the electronic systems with which aircraft are equipped. These serve a variety of purposes, ranging from communications and monitoring to collision-avoidance and navigation.

What is the Baltic Air Charter Association (BACA)?

The Baltic Air Charter Association (BACA), of which LunaJets is a proud member, is a London-based worldwide organisation that acts as a network for air charter professionals. As the world's largest and most prestigious organisation of its kind, BACA promotes the highest standards of professionalism and ethics and its members strive to deliver this level of service to the consumer.

What is BBJ?

BBJ is an acronym that stands for Boeing Business Jets, the American company's series of VIP airliners which are often derived from their commercial jets. They are known for combining the luxury of a Business Jet with the space of a Commercial Airliner to provide an exceptional service. The Boeing 737 is known to be the flagship of the BBJ but now 757, 767, 777, 787 or 747 400 models of BBJ exist.

What is business jet charter?

How does a jet charter card work?

A Charter Card is a method of pre-payment for private air travel, often purchased in the form of a block of charter hours. These are sold for a pre-determined fee or a set debit balance, resulting in higher overall costs of travel than purchasing individual bespoke flights through LunaJets.

How does a cockpit work?

The cockpit is the area in the forward fuselage of an aircraft which contains the pilot and co-pilot's seats, the flying controls and instrument panel.

What is cruising speed for an airplane?

Cruise speed is the speed maintained by the aircraft once it has acquired its cruising altitude.

What is depreciation of an aircraft?

The term 'depreciation', in the context of aviation, refers to the reduction in value of an aircraft over time due to a variety of factors, principally: age, use, wear and market conditions.

What does the term double rotation mean in aviation?

A 'Double Rotation' is when the flight itinerary sees an aircraft fly to a destination, drop off its passengers then return to its home base. The aircraft then returns to the same original destination to collect the passengers and return them to where their journey began. This occurs when it is more expensive to keep an aircraft away from its home base than it is to return home and go back to pick up the passengers. See also 'Double Round Trip'.

What is a double round trip?

Also known as a 'Double Rotation', a Double Round Trip is when the flight itinerary sees an aircraft fly to a destination, drop off its passengers then return to its home base. The aircraft then returns to the same original destination to collect the passengers and return them to where their journey began. This occurs when it is more expensive to keep an aircraft away from its home base than it is to return home and go back to pick up the passengers.

What is drag in aviation?

Drag, along with thrust, lift and weight, is one of the four forces acting on an aircraft during straight-and-level unaccelerated flight. Drag is an aerodynamic force, generated by the difference in velocity between the aircraft and the atmosphere in which it flies. Drag can be considered as a form of aerodynamic friction, which acts in the opposite direction to the direction of motion of an aircraft, thus opposing the aircraft's motion through the air.

What is crew duty time?

This refers to the number of hours per day that a member of the crew is on duty in any capacity, including hours outside of flight time. The length of duty time is limited by the FAA or EASA and many charter operators impose their own restrictions so it is worth inquiring about when planning a trip of long duration.

What is the EASA?

The European Aviation Safety Agency, known as EASA, is a European Union organization whose principal role is the regulation of safety standards among civil aviation aircraft and their operators. This largely consists of certification of the airworthiness of aircraft, to ensure that those which are licensed to fly by EASA comply with all their regulations and are, therefore, extremely secure and reliable. It is the European equivalent to the North American, FAA.

What is the EBACE?

EBACE, the European Business Convention and Exhibition, is an annual convention run by the EBAA in cooperation with the NBAA. For the past several years, it has been held in Geneva, Switzerland and has become Europe's largest Business Aviation tradeshow.

What are empty legs flights and how much do they cost?

Empty legs are flights, often the return journey of a one-way private charter flight, which an aircraft needs to make in order to reposition itself for its next client or to return back to its home base. Since the aircraft has to make these flights regardless, LunaJets' empty legs are available for considerably lower prices than on-demand charter flights, sometimes discounted by as much as 75%.

What is the purpose of the FAA?

The FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) is the national aviation authority of the U.S.A. As a component of the US department of Transportation, the FAA acts as the official regulator of all aspects of civil aviation. These include managing airports and Air Traffic Control services within the United States, as well as setting industry standards, carrying out aircraft inspections and controlling licensing operations.

What does FBO stand for in aviation?

An FBO (Fixed Base Operator) is responsible for providing a variety of aeronautical ground services, including fueling, maintenance, catering and hangaring, among others.

What ferry flight means?

A ferry flight is essentially a delivery flight, carried out with the purpose of repositioning an aircraft for various reasons, such as returning an aircraft to its home base, moving an aircraft to or from a maintenance facility or changing the aircraft's location to enable it to collect a passenger or passengers. This term also refers to the flight made to deliver an aircraft from its place of manufacture to its customer.

What is in a flight plan?

An aircraft's flight plan is a document which details the specifications of its intended flight; its departure and arrival locations, duration and number of passengers, for example. The flight plan is filed with the local aviation authority by either the pilot or flight dispatcher so that the information can be shared with Air Traffic Control and other relevant parties. It is mandatory to field a flight plan for any commercial flight.

What does it mean fly by wire?

Fly-by-wire is the term used to describe recent technological advances that have led to revolutionary changes to the way in which aircraft are flown. While in the past a pilots controls were manual, a fly-by-wire system sees the pilot's movement of flight controls being converted by an electronic interface and then transmitted by a computer to the relevant part of the aircraft where the pilot's command is carried out automatically. The consequence of this technology is that a pilot has even more precise control of an aircraft than before, greatly enhancing reliability, safety and stability.

How does Fractional Aircraft Ownership work?

This is a scheme by which a number of unrelated parties are able to purchase a portion of an aircraft. Each fractional owner shares a pre-ordained amount of aircraft access, although the aircraft is not necessarily the same every time. The main motivation of fractional ownership is the capacity to share the costs of the aircraft which no one party needs full-time use of. However, due to the fact that fractional owners generally pay a fixed monthly maintenance fee as well as an hourly fee, this results in it being more expensive than having LunaJets organize individual on-demand flights.

How do you calculate a fuel surcharge?

This fee can be added onto the cost of a charter flight to reflect the increase in fuel prices since the initial price of the journey was issued. Since LunaJets' service includes no hidden fees, fluctuating market fuel costs do not affect our prices.

What is a fuselage on an airplane?

The complete central structure of an aircraft which is designed to house the flight crew, passengers and cargo. The fuselage is the main body to which the wings, tail surfaces and engines are attached.

What is the name of the landing place for helicopters?

Helipad, a helipad is a flat area used for the takeoff and landing of helicopters. LunaJets has access to a large range of reliable and professional helicopter operators to suit all your needs.

What is a Heliport?

A heliport is an airport for helicopters, often featuring more than one helipad. It should offer similar amenities to an airport, including re-fuelling and maintenance services.

What is the International Air Transport Association (IATA)?

IATA is an international trade association which represents over 240 airlines, including the majority of the world's major carriers, including British Airways, Virgin and Emirates. Based in Montreal, Canada, with executive offices in Geneva, Switzerland, IATA's primary role is to help formulate industry policy and standards, while offering support services to all airline activity. The 3-letter airport code on your LunaJets' flight confirmation is the IATA identification code, the same as you see on your luggage when traveling commercial.

What does the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) do?

The ICAO is a specialized United Nations agency, based in Montreal, Canada, which serves to determine the official codes and protocols of international air navigation and the global aviation industry. It is not to be confused with organizations, such as IATA, as these are trade associations that represent specific interests. ICAO airport identification codes are 4 letters long. Our LunaJets headquarters airport, Geneva, is called LSGG in the ICAO's nomenclature.

What is a Flight Itinerary?

An itinerary is a detailed plan of the stages of any journey or route, often in the form of an official flight document. LunaJets' skilled team of Private Aviation Advisors will find you the most affordable solution on the market, however complicated your itinerary may be.

What are Jet Streams?

Jet streams are narrow, high speed air currents that are found at high-altitudes of our atmosphere. These winds generally flow in a westerly direction and are found in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres.

What is Joint Ownership in aviation?

Like Fractional Ownership, Joint Ownership allows unrelated parties to purchase a portion of an aircraft. The main motivation of joint ownership is the capacity to share the costs of the aircraft which no one party needs full-time use of. However, due to the fact that these owners generally pay a fixed monthly maintenance fee as well as an hourly fee, this results in it being more expensive than having LunaJets organize individual on-demand flights.

What is a Large Business Jet?

This is a category of Business Jet to which aircraft such as the Embraer Legacy 650 and Dassault Falcon 2000 belong. Jets which fall into this category are generally capable of accommodating between 8 and 14 passengers and can complete up to 8 hours of uninterrupted flight. The LunaJets team has expertise in all Business Jet categories to find you the most suitable and best-value option on the market.

What does a layover mean?

A layover is when, after arriving in a location, a length of time, often a night, is spent there before setting off again to a new destination. For the aircraft, the concept entails it spending this period of time away from its home base airport. Your personal LunaJets advisor can easily provide layover flight services and fulfill any of your other flight requirements, using professional experience to determine the most cost-effective and efficient option available.

What is a Flight Leg?

A leg is a single segment of a journey between a departure location and arrival location. A complete journey may be divided into a number of legs for various reasons, such as for refuelling or a layover.

What is Lift in aviation?

Lift is one of the four forces acting on an aircraft during straight-and-level unaccelerated flight, along with drag, weight and thrust. Lift is a mechanical aerodynamic force that is generated by every part of an aircraft but mostly by the wings. It directly opposes the weight of the aircraft and is produced due to the plane's motion, acting in a perpendicular direction to the direction of motion, serving to keep the aircraft in the air.

What is a Light Jet?

Those Business Jets which are classified as Light Jets are generally considered to be capable of accommodating between 5 and 8 passengers and of flying for up to 3 and a half hours. Due to their often excellent combination of value and performance, aircraft in this category are extremely popular for intra-European flights. LunaJets has access to all types of aircraft categoriesR, enabling us to provide you with the ideal jet to suit your journey.

What is a Long Range Business Jet?

Long Range Business Jets are categorised in this way due to a variety of features. They are often around the same size as Super Large Jets but differentiate themselves from this category due to their greater range, as their name suggests. Jets in the Long Range category, such as Bombardier's Global 6000 and the Gulfstream G650, can comfortably seat upwards of 10 passengers and travel non-stop for up to 13 hours. Every class of aircraft is available to LunaJets expert team so that we can advise you as to which is the best for your journey.

What is Medevac?

A medical evacuation carried out by an aircraft that is specially equipped for medical purposes and is used to transport people suffering from sickness or injury to hospital in the case of an an emergency. The planes are staffed with at least one doctor monitoring the patient for the duration of the flight. See also Air Ambulance.

What does METAR mean?

A Meteorological Aerodrome Report (METAR) is a form of aviation weather report given at half-hourly or hourly intervals, often by airports and weather observation stations. It consists of a list of information concerning the weather at any given airport and is reviewed by all pilots before any takeoff and landing.

What is a Midsize Jet?

All private jets belong to a specific category, depending on their individual specifications and capabilities. Jets belong to the Midsize category for a number of reasons, for example, being able to undertake uninterrupted flights of up to 5 and a half hours in length, as well as accommodating between 7 and 9 passengers. LunaJets has access to every category of aircraft, allowing us to provide you with the perfect jet for your flight requirements.

What is the National Business Aviation Association (NBAA)?

The National Business Aviation Association (NBAA) was founded in 1947 and represents over 10,000 aviation industry companies. It is a non-profit organisation, based in Washington, and provides a range of services to the business aviation community, including the NBAA Business Aviation Convention and Exhibition, the world's largest civil aviation trade show

How long is a nautical mile compared to a regular mile?

A nautical mile is the unit of measurement used by both sea and air navigators, which corresponds to one minute of latitude. It is universally considered to be 1852 metres, nearly 250 metres longer than a standard mile.

What is an A notice to airmen or NOTAM?

A NOTAM, or a Notice to Airmen, is a notice provided to an aviation authority by government agencies or airport operators with the intention of alerting pilots to any potential hazards that might affect their flight, thus playing an essential role in ensuring the safe passage of an aircraft. They serve to warn pilots of dangers along their flight path, such as air shows, military exercises, abnormal or extreme weather condition or even the passage of flocks of birds.

Who is the operator of an aircraft?

An operator, or Air Charter Operator, is authorised to operate air charter flights, due to having been granted an Air Operator Certificate (AOC). This is the party in charge of the maintenance, licensing, safety and operations of private aircraft, be it a single business jet or a fleet. The operator is not necessarily the owner of the private aircraft that is available for charter.

What does payload mean?

The term 'payload' refers to anything that an aircraft is transporting, outside of those things necessary for its operation. This generally refers to any cargo or equipment being carried by an aircraft, as well as the passengers.

What is pitch in aviation?

There are three rotations about three axes that an aircraft in flight is capable of making: pitch, roll and yaw. Pitch is the rotation about the axis running from wing to wing, the lateral axis, and sees the nose of the aircraft moving up or down, thus changing the vertical direction in which the aircraft's nose is pointing.

What is a Private Jet?

A private jet is an aircraft which has been purchased by an individual or an organisation, rather than an airline.

What is a Private Jet Broker?

An agent who acts as an intermediary to facilitate the hiring of private jets for his clients. The benefits of organizing an aircraft through a broker are enormous, as LunaJets' team of brokers is not influenced by bias due to not having their own fleet to sell. We also have access to all different types of aircraft from all the operators on the market, enabling us to find the aircraft most suitable to your needs and to put operators in competition with one another to negotiate the best price.

What is chartering a Private Jet?

The act of chartering a private jet for the purpose of personal use or corporate transportation. See also Business Jet Charter.

What does repositioning flight mean?

It is the movement of an aircraft to a new location for logistical, as opposed to revenue, purposes. A repositioning flight is often carried out so that an aircraft, having dropped one passenger off at a destination, can collect a new passenger from a different airport. Frequently, positioning flights are empty and LunaJets gives you access to these flights, known as 'empty legs', which are often available for incredible prices.

What is the repositioning time?

The time take for an aircraft to perform a repositioning flight.

What is roll in aviation?

There are three rotations about three axes that an aircraft in flight is capable of making: pitch, roll and yaw. Roll is the rotation about the axis running from nose to tail, the longitudinal axis, and this rotation impacts on the orientation of the aircraft's wings in relation to the downward force of gravity. It is also known as Bank.

What is de-icing in aviation?

De-icing is defined as the removal of ice and snow from parts of the aircraft. This is extremely important for maintaining an aircraft's safety and performance as, if snow and ice are covering the wings, it changes the air dynamics and disrupts the airflow across the wings' surface. The lift performance is thus reduced. For this reason, it is absolutely necessary to remove all ice and snow from the aircraft before takeoff. De-icing is the only additional cost that will be charged after the flight by LunaJets, as we unfortunately cannot predict it. LunaJets propose some insurances on small aircraft. Please ask your of Private Aviation Advisor for more information.

What is air navigation?

This is the process or science of accurately determining one's location, often when travelling in an aircraft, and being able to plot the route of a journey and then following this course. Excellent navigation skills are crucial to effectively flying an aircraft even if technology has been improving continuously since the arrival of GPS in the cockpit.

What are sharklets on a plane?

Sharklet is the name given by Airbus to their design of blended winglet. It is a vertical wing-tip extension that greatly improves an aircraft's efficiency due to the manner in which it channels and manoeuvres the flow of air past the wing.

What are Super Large Jets?

Business jets are classed in certain categories due to a variety of factors. Those considered Super Large Jets, such as the Challenger 850 and the Falcon 900 series, are generally capable of up 10 hours of constant flight, as well as offering seating to between 10 and 15 passengers. LunaJets has access to all types of aircraft categories, enabling us to provide you with the ideal jet to suit your journey.

What is a Super Light Jet?

Aircraft are classified as Super Light due to their capacity to carry from 6 to 9 passengers and their ability to complete journeys that require up to 4 and a half hours of flight without a stop. A great advantage of organising your private jet flight through LunaJets is that we can search the entire market for all categories of aircraft to find the ideal solution to your needs, and at the best price.

What is a Super Midsize Jet?

Super Midsize Jets are categorised as such thanks to their ability to accommodate between 8 and 10 passengers and make uninterrupted flights of up to 6 and half hours in duration. LunaJets team of Private Aviation Advisors is at your service to provide you with an aircraft from any category, whatever the size of your group or the length of your flight may be.

What TAF means?

A Terminal Area Forecast, or TAF, is a means of relaying weather condition, in particular those which impact on aviation. This forecast covers the surrounding 5 mile area of an airport runway complex and is updated every six hours. TAFs use similar coding to METAR reports but there are fewer TAF locations due to the fact that they are provided by individuals on the ground instead of airports or weather observation centres.

What is a Tail Number?

This is an aircraft's registration number. Each country has an identifying letter or group of letters at the beginning of the tail number, eg. N for the USA, G for the United Kingdom, F for France and HB for Switzerland.

What means taxi time?

Taxi time is the period that an aircraft spends moving on the ground, that's to say the amount of time between an aircraft moving off from its stationary parking position and its time of takeoff. Unlike many operators and other brokers, LunaJets never makes you pay for taxi time as it is entirely out of your control.

How do airplanes generate thrust?

Four forces act on an aircraft during straight-and-level unaccelerated flight; thrust, lift, weight and drag. Thrust is the force which propels an aircraft through the air, countering the effect of drag and working in the opposite direction. Thrust is a mechanical force that is generated by the engines of an aircraft and the greater the disparity between thrust and drag, the faster an aircraft will accelerate.

What are transponders used for?

A transponder is a crucial piece of technology with which all modern aircraft are equipped in order to ensure a safe flight. This electronic transmitter, found onboard an aircraft, serves to inform Air Traffic Control Services of the planes exact position, allowing it to appear on their radar and collision avoidance systems.

What is a Trijet?

An aircraft, such as the Dassault Falcon 7X, which is equipped with three jet engines.

What is true airspeed?

When at different altitudes, the change in pressure and temperature affects the capacity of an aircraft's standard system to accurately indicate airspeed as the number of air molecules entering the pilot's tube is fewer than it would be at sea-level. Consequently, a system of measurement to evaluate the correct airspeed at varying altitudes was developed to give the pilot the aircraft's true airspeed. Therefore, this term simply refers to the correct airspeed of a plane at altitude.

What is a Turbofan Aircraft?

An aircraft which is fitted with jet engines to provide it with thrust. In very basic words, these engines are those in which a turbo-driven compressor draws in air and compresses it, before pushing it into the combustion chamber, where the fuel is also injected. Ignition causes the rapid expulsion of gases, which pass into a turbine, providing energy to a fan (a multiblade type of propeller), propelling the aircraft forwards. LunaJets has access to both Turbofan and Turboprops aircraft, enabling us to provide you with whatever aircraft suits your preferences and journey requirements.

What is a Turboprops Aircraft?

Turboprops Aircraft generate the majority of their thrust from turbine-powered propellers, while receiving extra power from the expulsion of exhaust gases. This type of aircraft are slower and louder than turbojets but are excellent value and are capable of accessing remote airports that are often inaccessible other aircraft. Due to having to both Turbojet and Turboprops aircraft, LunaJets is able to tailor their service to provide you with the perfect aircraft for your needs and preferences.

What are VIP Airliners?

VIP Airliners are the pinnacle of private jet travel, being the largest and most luxurious Business Jets on the market. Jets in this class, consisting of aircraft such as Boeings BBJ series and Airbus' ACJ range, are categorised as being capable of up to 8 hours of non-stop flight, as well as being able to transport between 12 and 30 passengers, depending on which of the huge variety of different layouts has been chosen. Get in touch with LunaJets' team, whatever your flight specifications, as we can cater for all journey requirements.

What is a VLJ?

Very Light Jets, or VLJs, belong to the smallest aircraft category, comfortably seating 4 passengers for flights of 2 hours or less. They are extremely popular for intra-European flights as they are efficient and available for the best price when you organise your flight through LunaJets.

What is Wait Time in aviation?

The amount of time that an aircraft spends waiting on the tarmac to take off on the next leg of its itinerary.

What is a weather sensitive airport?

A weather sensitive airport is an airport whose operation is largely affected by weather conditions. This could be for a number of reasons, such as its location giving the airport increased exposure to unfavourable conditions or it simply being prone to bad weather. All LunaJets' Private Aviation Advisors are fully aware of different airport specifications, as these are crucial to ensuring a pleasant and smooth flight.

What is aircraft winglet?

A winglet is a small, nearly-vertical projection, found on the end of an aircraft's wing. The winglet has two primary impacts: firstly, it greatly reduces drag and, secondly, it serves as an effective stabiliser. Consequently, many modern aircraft are fitted with winglets as they are proven to increase an aircraft's range, as well as its fuel efficiency.

What is yaw on an airplane?

There are three rotations about three axes that an aircraft in flight is capable of making: pitch, roll and yaw. Yaw is the rotation about the axis running vertically through an aircraft, perpendicular to the body of the wings. Yaw changes the horizontal direction in which the nose of the aircraft is pointing, moving the nose from side to side, and is primarily controlled by the aircraft's rudder.

What is an ATC slot?

The commonly called 'ATC Slot' message is provided by Air Traffic Control in order to delay an aircraft departure time, when necessary for regulation reasons. The CTOC (Calculated Takeoff Time) will be the new identified, planned time. Understandably, passengers do not like ATC slot restrictions, as they often cause delay. However, they are provided for the safety of air traffic and can sometimes improve over time as Air Traffic Control will always try to accommodate traffic as much as possible.